Obesity problem, its Type, Symptoms, Causes, Side Effects and related diseases, Treatment, Home Remedies, Complications, Frequently Asked Questions about it
What is Obesity?
Obesity is the condition of excessive or abnormal accumulation of fat or adipose tissue in the body, which is associated with the risk of developing diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia that can harm our health. This is an important global health issue that has grown steadily over the last 50 years.
Obesity is a complex disease and has multiple etymologies. This is the second most common cause of preventable death after smoking.
Obesity Problem and its Treatment
Obesity is the result of an imbalance between daily energy intake and energy consumption, leading to excessive weight gain. Obesity rates have risen at a shocking rate worldwide, affecting more than 500 million adults.
Obesity is well determined using body mass index (Body Mass Index-BMI), a quantity obtained by dividing the weight of a person by the square of the person’s height. 25-30 kg/sq m an adult with BMI is said to be overweight and an adult with BMI >30 is considered obese.
Further this article will discuss the problem of obesity, its treatment and other things associated with it.
Types of Obesity Problem
There are many categories of obesity depending on which part of the body fat is accumulated. These can be mainly categorized in three-
1) Marginal obesity – Marginal obesity is the state of excess fat accumulation in the buttocks, hips and thighs. This type of fat distribution can be protective.
2) Central obesity – In the central type of obesity, fat occupies the stomach area of the patient. Central obese people are at a higher risk of developing obesity-related diseases such as type-2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and heart disease. In addition, the possibility of developing cardiovascular disease, Gout that manifests as high blood pressure and most cancers are associated with central type of fat distribution. Central obesity can also affect other parts of the upper body such as the tail area of the upper chest of the neck, even on the shoulder. Central obese people are known to be more prone to obesity related diseases.
3) Mixed obesity – This is a mixed form of marginal and central obesity type.
On the other hand, obesity is divided into 2 parts based on whether it is associated with illness or not –
- Type 1 – This is not influenced by any illness, but rather this type occurs when the physical activity is too less and the consumed food portions are large.
- Type 2 – This results from underlying diseases such as Cushing Syndrome, Hypothyroidism, Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD), Insulinoma etc. This is found to be less than 1% of the entire obesity cases. Eating less food in this patient also leads to abnormal weight gain.
Causes of Obesity
Common causes of obesity problem can be as follows:
- Physical inactivity
Physically less active people burn fewer calories than active people. This causes obesity and other problems associated with it.
- Excessive intake of food
Excessive eating can also be a cause of obesity, especially if the diet is high in fat. Foods with high fats or sugars (for example, fast food, fried food, and sweets) have a high energy density (foods with plenty of calories in low amounts of food). High fat diet contributes to weight gain.
- Genetic causes
If one or both parents are obese then one person is more likely to become obese. Genetics also affect hormones involved in fat control. One genetic cause of obesity is the lack of leptin. Leptin is a hormone produced in fat cells and placentas. Leptin controls weight by signaling the brain to eat less when the body fat reserves are too high. If, for some reason, the body cannot produce enough leptin or leptin can signal the brain to eat less, this control is lost, and obesity occurs.
- Excessive consumption of easy carbohydrates
Carbohydrates increase blood sugar levels, which cause insulin to be released by the pancreas, and insulin can boost fat tissue growth and gain weight. Some scientists believe that simple carbohydrates contribute to weight gain as they are absorbed more quickly in the bloodstream than complex carbohydrates and thus release more obvious insulin after meals than complex carbohydrates. Some scientists believe that this high insulin release contributes to weight gain.
- Frequently eating
There are many reports of people weighing more than normal weight eating less frequently. Scientists have observed that those who eat four or five small meals daily have lower cholesterol levels and/or more stable blood sugar levels less often than those who eat. Thus, small frequent meals produce stable insulin levels, while large meals lead to large spikes of insulin after meals.
- Psychological reasons
Emotions affect eating habits. Many people eat too much in response to emotions such as boredom, sadness, stress or anger. While most overweight people do not have more mental disturbances than normal weight people, nearly 30% of people seeking treatment for serious weight problems have difficulty eating faster.
In some cases hypothyroidism, insulin resistance, polycystic ovary symptoms, and cushing syndrome also appear as factors for obesity which can cause problems associated with obesity as side effects.
- For medicines
Drugs associated with weight gain include some antidepressants, anticonvulsant, some diabetes drugs, some hormones such as oral contraceptives, and most corticosteroids such as prednisone and some high blood pressure drugs and antihistamine – these lead to weight gain.
Symptoms of Obesity
The most visible symptom of obesity problem is excess body fat, usually measured by BMI. 30 or more BMI indicate obesity, while a person with BMI between 25 and 30 is considered overweight.
Complications of Obesity
Weight and obesity are the main risk factors for several health problem and chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases such as heart disease and stroke, which is the leading cause of death worldwide. Being overweight can also lead to diabetes and related conditions, including blindness, cutting limbs, and dialysis requirements. Diabetes rates have quadrupled around the world since 1980. Carrying extra weight can lead to muscle skeletal disorders including osteoarthritis. Obesity is associated with some cancer problems, including endometrial, breast, ovaries, prostate, liver, gallbladder, kidney and colon. The risk of these non-communicable diseases increases even when a person is slightly overweight and more severe as the body mass index (BMI) increases.
Childhood obesity is associated with various serious health complications and untimely onset risk of related diseases. Studies have shown that without intervention, children and adolescents with obesity remain obese until they reach adulthood.
Treatment of Obesity
You can try the following to treat obesity:
1) Make a glass of lemon water each morning and fill the water with 2 teaspoons of honey. Mix and drink. Honey is known to be full of medicinal properties, and lemon helps in detoxifying digestive systems. All this helps the body to release excess fat and the effects are visible in just weeks.
2) Add fenugreek, black cumin seeds, carom seeds, etc. to your food as they increase the metabolic rate of the body leading to fat loss.
3) Eat cinnamon. This spice has internal properties that control sugar levels in the body and help in controlling insulin levels in the blood. This helps in weight loss.
4) Drinking enough water every day can be a very effective home remedy for weight loss.
5) Stop eating artificial sugar; as such sugars contribute to weight gain.
6) Make up for at least 8 hours of sleep a day. Sleep regulates body functioning and helps in proper digestion. It helps to maintain the normal metabolic rate of the body, which is essential to reduce excess fat from your body.
7) Eat repeatedly in small quantities instead of eating too much at once. Because doing so will keep you from overeating and make you full for the day. This process thus can be helpful in weight loss.
8) Proper chewing of food is essential for proper digestion and to prevent overeating. Research on this suggests that those who swallow their food without chewing properly are consuming fewer calories than those who take time while eating.
9) Consuming whole grain foods will benefit the most. On the other hand, refined grains or refined flour are quite harmful and can increase your body weight. This is because the refined flours are actually simple carbohydrates.
10) Research indicates that a stressed person has more difficulty losing weight than another person. You can do exercise, meditation, yoga, etc., or do something you like to do yourself to relieve stress.
11) Eat a rich diet of fiber and protein. Fiber and protein will help in reducing fat accumulated in the body. Also consume green vegetables and various fruits.
12) Maintain physical activity. Give up mechanical help in favor of daily activities, you can walk instead of taking a vehicle to cover a shorter distance on the falling side. You can take some time out in the midst of busy schedules and do simple exercises. Some of the small lifestyle changes that are done like this will help you lose weight.
13) Quit smoking and drinking, as it can contribute to weight gain.
The above article provides you a basic knowledge of the problem of obesity and other related information. This article may benefit you in various ways.
Read Also: Obesity problem and Treatment (Assamese)
1) What is the main cause of obesity?
A- While genetic and cultural and environmental factors can lead to obesity, the main reason is overeating and/or not exercising enough.
2) What can happen from obesity?
A- Being obese threatens you with a number of preventable diseases and conditions including heart disease, type-2 diabetes, high blood pressure, stroke, gallbladder disease, respiratory problems and certain types of cancer, chronic back pain, and osteoarthritis. Obesity can also affect self-esteem and can lead to depression.
3) Is liposuction effective as a treatment for obesity?
A- Liposuction, sometimes called body contouring, is a cosmetic process that reshapes and smooths the body. Although liposuction removes unwanted accumulation of excess fat, it is not an alternative to diet and physical activity and is not a treatment for obesity.
4) What is the difference between being overweight and being obese?
A. To determine whether a person is overweight or obese, it is often determined by evaluating the body mass index (BMI), the ratio between weight and height. If your BMI is between 25 and 29.9, you are overweight. If your BMI is 30 or resistant, you are considered obese.
5) How does surgery for weight loss reduce increased weight?
A- Weight loss surgery changes the metabolism of obesity disease. These surgeries cause changes in various hormones that reduce excessive cravings of food and improve eating satisfaction; these reduce the overall intake of food. Some absorption processes like gastric bypass prevent absorption of consumed fats. Hormonal changes increase the patient’s BMI and all fat accumulated gradually converts into energy and disappears.