Anaphylaxis Allergic Reaction, Description, Causes, Symptoms, Types, Treatment, Home remedies and FAQ
What is Anaphylaxis?
Allergies are described as an exaggerated response from the body’s immune system to the intoxicating substances in the environment. Allergy is a widespread phenomena and is associated with the body’s immune response to foreign substances common in the environment and triggers a reaction from the body’s immune response which is described as Hypersensitivity.
Hypersensitivity is usually an inappropriate immune response to harmless antigens, which can appear as a continuation from mild to severe symptoms. Serious disclosures include reactions to anaphylaxis allergies.
Anaphylaxis Allergic Reaction and Treatment
The most common factors of anaphylaxis include food, medicine, insect bites, and allergen immunotherapy. Any substance that can trigger degranulation of the must cell (mast cell) or besophile can insinuate anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis occurs between 0.5 and 2% in the general population.
Further this article will discuss the Anaphylaxis allergic reaction and things related to it.
Causes of Anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis allergy is the most serious form of hypersensitivity reaction that has a quick start from minute to hour. This reaction occurs when the mast cells and basophils are activated through the blocking of cell membrane receptors to the IgE antibodies.
Common lying factors of anaphylaxis are bee bite, peanuts, pulses, latex and some medicines. But apart from these other substances can also start this reaction. If the following factors are in a person’s body, he may get affected by this allergy –
1) Acute onset of diseases that include skin, mucous tissue or both: This process lasts from minute to hour and can be in the form of generalized hive, pruritus, flushing, swollen lips, tongue and vulva. In addition to these, there should be at least one of the following:
- Respiratory compromises such as dyspnea, wheezing, bronchospasm, stridor, and degraded efforts of the top respiratory system and decreased hypoxia (which can be produced by tissue edema and capillary leaks in lung tissue).
- Symptoms of decreased blood pressure or End-organ Hypoperfusion such as shock, hypotonia, chincope, incontinence etc.
2) Two or more of the following reactions (called antigens, heptans, and master cell receptor stimulants in literature) appear rapidly for seconds or several hours after exposure to potential allergens –
- Skin-mucus tissue indicated by the hive, itching in flushing, and swollen tissues like lips, tongue and vulva; Other mucous tissue may also be affected by local exposure and may not be as clear.
- Respiratory compromises from dyspnea, swelling of the bronchos reduce swollen rheumatism, bronchospasm, and stridor, or peak expiry flow and hypoxia.
- Symptoms associated with blood pressure loss or chincope.
- Persistent gastrointestinal signs and symptoms such as pain, vomiting, excessive salivation caused by inability to swallow secretions.
3) Only decreased blood pressure after exposure to known allergens for the patient as mentioned below-
- Decrease in blood pressure in adults when the level of systolic decreases by more than 90 or decreases by more than 30 percent from that person’s baseline.
- Lower blood pressure or systolic blood pressure degrades more than 30 percent than normal due to their age-specific anger in babies and children.
Also, the response to signs or symptoms that solve epinephrine for a known allergen may also fall in the category of anaphylaxis allergic reaction.
Types of Anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis allergic reaction can be divided as below:
- Anaphylactic Reaction
A protein called IgE antibody produced by the immune system mediates anaphylactic reactions. These allergens such as pollen, animal pores or dust particles, can even produced in response to certain foods. This releases histamine and other chemicals causing inflammation and swelling. For example, bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, food allergies, allergic conjunctivitis (inflammation of the eyes) and anaphylaxis (allergic shock) can be noticed.
- Cytotoxic Reaction
This type of allergic reaction is mediated by a protein called IgG and IgM antibodies. Antibodies associated with cytotoxic reactions damage cells by activating an element of immunity called complementary systems. Cytotoxic allergic reactions are seen in certain conditions such as-
- Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
- Immune thrombocytopenia
- Autoimmune neutropenia
- Immunocomplex Reaction
Immunocomplex reactions are also mediated by proteins i.e. IgM and IgG antibodies. These antibodies react with allergens to form immunocomplexes. These complexes are responsible for the reaction. Such reactions are seen in the following:
- Serum sickness and
- Arthus Reaction.
- Cell-mediated Reaction
Cell-mediated reactions are also known as delayed forms of hypersensitivity or allergic reactions as they occur at least 24 hours after exposure to allergens. These reactions usually take 48-72 hours or more to appear after exposure to allergens. Many chronic infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis and fungal infections, show cell-mediated reactions. Some skin sensitivity reactions to metals can also be of this type.
Symptoms of Anaphylaxis
Symptoms of anaphylaxis allergic reaction often show within minutes of exposure to allergens. However, sometimes, exposure can occur even after half an hour or more. In rare cases, anaphylaxis can be delayed for hours. Signs and symptoms include –
- Skin reactions, including a hives and itching and flush or pale skin
- Low blood pressure (Hypotension)
- Contracting airways and swelling of the tongue or neck, which can cause wheezing and breathing problems.
- Weak and fast heartbeat
- Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea
- Dizziness or fainting etc.
Treatment of Anaphylaxis Allergic Reaction
Following are some ways you can do as a first aid if anaphylaxis or any other type of allergic reaction shows up –
1) Antihistamine can help treat most mild allergic reactions regardless of the cause. These drugs reduce the production of histamine in the body, which reduces all symptoms including sneezing, tears, and skin reactions. Antihistamine can be found in the following types:
- Orally taken Pills
- Dissolved Pills
- Nasal spray
- Eye drops etc.
2) Nasal decongestant pills, fluids and sprays can help in filling, swelling, sinus and related symptoms, such as neck pain or cough reduction. However it should not be used continuously for more than three days.
3) Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be used to temporarily reduce the pain and swelling caused by allergies.
4) The best way to treat and prevent allergic reactions is to know what triggers the reaction and stay away from it, especially food allergens. When it is not possible or realistic, using antihistamine or decongestant when exposed to allergens can help treat symptoms.
5) Mix 1 teaspoon baking soda with 3 teaspoons of salt and let the mixture melt in 29 grams of boiling water and use that liquid mixture to wash your nose like a saline. Doing so can relieve nasal allergies. Sinus rinsing devices are available in pharmacies to buy.
6) Neck lozenges with soothing ingredients such as menthol, honey or ginger for allergies from airborne allergens, such as pollen, dust, and shading germs; All clothes, baths after exposure to allergens; Some exercise can help reduce nasal rush and relieve such allergies.
7) Allergic reactions caused by animal saliva, toxic plants, drugs, chemicals and allergens found in metals that show prominent skin symptoms can be treated by using ice packs in the affected area, using inflammation-reducing ointments or medications can also help.
NOTE: If you are suffering from severe anaphylaxis or other allergic reactions then please approach an expert instead of relying on remedies. Severe reactions may require medical attention.
Complications of Anaphylaxis Allergic Reaction
This reaction leads to secondary substance activation such as Phospholipase A2, followed by Cyclooxygenase and Lipogenesis, as well as arachidonic acid, platelet-activating factors, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.
These cytocoins and camocans cause life-threatening symptoms, including-
- Increased vascular permeability and
- Flushing of the face.
The reaction with platelet-activation factors is more advanced, leading to bronchoconstry and vascular permeability. Activating neutrophils by tumor necrosis factors and over-hiring of impacting cells, and increasing the synthesis of kemocain. This serious rapid progress is life threatening and can lead to death if not interfered with medical treatment.
The above article discusses the Anaphylaxis allergic reaction and related information to it. The information provided is only for your knowledge. If you are suffering from a severe allergic reaction, you should approach an expert or doctors.
Also Read: Anaphylaxis Allergic Reaction (Assamese)
1) What is anaphylaxis?
A- Anaphylaxis is a sudden, serious, and life-threatening immune system reaction. The most common allergens that can cause anaphylactic reactions include insect bites, foods, medicines, and latex.
2) What is an allergy drug called?
A. The class of medicines that treat allergic reactions is called ‘antihistamine’. The body releases a substance called histamine that is attached to the cells of the body, causing the cells to swell and release fluid. This causes symptoms of common allergies such as itching, sneezing, running water from the nose and eyes. Antihistamine helps prevent or relieve symptoms of allergies that cause symptoms by preventing histamines from attaching to cells.
3) Can allergies cause conjunctivitis?
A. An allergy can cause watery eyes (pink eyes), which is common in people with other types of allergies such as hay fever, asthma, or eczema.
4) What is pollen?
A- Pollens are powders produced by some plants that can cause allergies.
5) How are allergies diagnosed?
A- Allergies are detected by skin tests and blood tests. Skin tests are considered to be the most accurate, but both skin and blood tests can detect a person’s sensitivity to common allergens such as pollen, shading, dust particles, medicines, food, latex or other substances. Skin tests are generally preferred but allergy blood tests may be done if a patient has severe skin marks or if a person is taking medications that cannot be stopped, which can hamper the results of skin allergy tests.