Abnormal Blood Pressure – Symptoms, Causes and Remedies

Abnormal Blood Pressure – Symptoms, Causes and Home Remedies for hypertension and hypotension.


Blood pressure is the pressure exerted on the arteries while it carries the blood pumped by the heart to different parts of the body. One of the most common ailments these days is abnormal blood pressure; where the blood circulation through the arteries is faster or slower than the normal. This can lead to some serious side effects in the body. 

The following article will discuss the symptoms, causes and some of the home remedies for hypertension and hypotension.

Abnormal Blood Pressure - Symptoms, Causes and Remedies

Blood pressure reading is a combination of systolic and diastolic pressure reading. By reading both these pressures we get the accurate pressure of blood in the body. Systolic pressure is the pressure exerted by the ventricles to send blood out of the heart. Diastolic pressure, on the other hand, is the amount of pressure that is applied between the heartbeats as the blood flows to the heart.

The level of blood pressure in our body depends on the intensity of our daily activities. These changes throughout the day. The normal blood pressure in a healthy adult is said to be less than 120/80 Mercury millimeters (120/80 mm Hg); where 120 means systolic pressure and 80 means diastolic pressure.

Levels of Blood Pressure

Normal blood pressure – less than 120/80 Mercury millimeters

Low blood pressure – less than 90/60 mercury millimeters

Elevated Blood Pressure – Mercury millimeters less than 120-129 / 80 mm Hg

High blood pressure – Mercury millimeters greater than 130/80 mm[1]

Symptoms of Abnormal Blood Pressure

Abnormal blood pressure usually has no visible symptoms. Most people go through this situation, although this problem is not recognized and is often ignored.

When the problem is beyond tolerance, the following symptoms may occur –

Symptoms of high blood pressure-

  • Headache
  • Shortness of breath
  • Nasal congestion
  • Facial redness
  • Dizziness
  • Fatigue and confusion
  • Feeling of chest pain
  • Visual changes occur
  • Secretion of blood in urine
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Difficulty falling asleep
  • Excessive sweating
  • Nervousness etc.

Symptoms of low blood pressure-

  • Dizziness
  • Faint
  • Blurry vision
  • Nausea
  • Excessive tiredness
  • Difficulty in concentrating
In addition to these, severe low blood pressure can show the following symptoms –
  • Confusion; especially in case of older people
  • Cold, sweaty and dull pale skin
  • Frequent shallow short breathing
  • Weak and fast heartbeat etc.

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Causes of Abnormal Blood Pressure

Cause of High Blood Pressure

There are two types of High blood pressure (also known as hypertension) – 1) primary and 2) secondary.

Primary hypertension builds up spontaneously over time. It is more common in older people. There is no definite reason for people getting this type of hypertension.

Secondary hypertension is a physical condition that develops as a result of a pre-existing condition or disease in the body. This condition can occur suddenly and is more severe than the first one, resulting in people with this condition experiencing relatively higher blood pressure. Stimulation of secondary hypertension can have many causes. Here are some of the frequently noticed factors –

  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea (Soft muscles of the neck such as tongue, soft palate etc. relax while sleeping and the person find it difficult to breathe)
  • Kidney disease
  • Tumors of the adrenal glands
  • Thyroid problems
  • Congenital malformations in blood vessels.
  • Some medicines such as birth control pills, antipyretics, nasal decongestants, antidotes and some medicines prescribed by a doctor.
  • Illegal and harmful drugs such as amphetamines and cocaine.

In addition, the following factors can cause high blood pressure –

  • Excessive weight
  • Excessive intake of salt
  • Inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables
  • Lack of exercise or physical activity
  • Drinking more caffeinated and alcoholic beverages
  • Smoking
  • Insufficient sleep hours
  • Hereditary
  • Living alone
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Lupus – a physical condition in which the immune system attacks the skin, lumps, or organs of any part of the body.
  • Scleroderma- A physical condition in which the skin becomes thinner, sometimes causing problems to certain organs and arteries.[2]

Causes of low Blood Pressure

  • During pregnancy
  • Various heart problems
  • Addison’s disease, low blood sugar, parathyroid disease etc.
  • In some cases, diabetes can also lower blood pressure levels
  • Insufficient amount of water intake in the body can also lower the blood pressure level
  • Blood loss, severe septicemia and allergic reactions (anaphylaxis)
  • Lack of nutritious food

In addition to the above, low blood pressure levels can be affected by long-term rest and certain medications.

Risk Factors of Abnormal Blood Pressure

High Blood Pressure

1) Arteries may get damaged –

Healthy arteries become flexible and strong and there is no obstruction in the flow of blood through them. Increased blood pressure reduces the elasticity of these arteries, making them harder and narrower. This causes the fat to get accumulated in the arteries and make it difficult for the blood to circulate. This can lead to high blood pressure, blood clots and, in the end, it can lead to the death of the person by heart attack or stroke.

2) The heart may get damaged –

As blood pressure rises, our heart finds it more difficult to transport blood to other parts of the body. Increased blood pressure causes the heart muscle to contract more often and more frequently than usual. This can lead to sudden cardiac arrest, arrhythmias, heart attack, cardiac death, etc.

3) Risk of Brain Damage –

For the proper brain to function, it needs a regular flow of oxygen-carrying blood. This can be prevented by increased blood pressure. As a result, the energy flowing to the brain may temporarily condense; the condition is called ‘Transient Ischemic Attacks (TIAs)’. Frequent blood clotting can cause brain stroke.

In addition, uncontrolled high blood pressure can affect memory.

Low Blood Pressure:

Low blood pressure can cause dizziness, weakness of the body, nausea and a person can faint due to which he/she may get injured. When blood pressure drops too much, the body doesn’t meet the amount of oxygen required for the functioning of its organs. This later causes the heart and brain to suddenly stop functioning.

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How to treat Abnormal Blood Pressure?

High Blood Pressure

If you are suffering from High Blood Pressure / Hypertension, you can try the following methods –

  • Take ‘DASH’ diet. ‘DASH’ diet includes an adequate amount of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, fish, nuts. And it excludes foods high in saturated fats such as- processed foods, whole fat dairy products and fatty fish.
  • Reduce the amount of salt intake, sugar and refined carbohydrates in your daily diet.
  • You can eat whole garlic or can take garlic supplements.
  • Take a high protein diet.
  • Avoid caffeinated products.
  • Reduce or abstain from alcohol consumption.
  • Perform daily physical activity. This will help in controlling the blood pressure along with various physical problems.
  • Control body weight. If you are an adult and your total body weight is more than the normal level, then losing 5 to 10 percent of it will restore your body’s health.
  • Quit smoking. Smoking leads to abnormal blood pressure.
  • Get enough sleep. An adult needs 8 to 9 hours of sleep a day. Lack of this can lead to abnormal blood pressure and many other physical problems.
  • Relieve stress. Get involved in activities that can calm your mind, as stress provokes blood pressure levels to an abnormal stage.

Low Blood Pressure

  • Fill your stomach with a small amount of nutritious food between two full meals.
  • Consume an adequate amount of salt. Salt helps to increase blood pressure.
  • Hydrate your body with the adequate amounts of water or fruit juices.
  • Take caffeinated products. If you have a sudden drop in blood pressure, you can take a single dose of caffeinated beverages. It will help to normalize blood pressure levels.
  • Basil (Tulsi) leaves can be taken. Basil is rich in Potassium, Magnesium and Vitamin C which helps in normalizing blood pressure.
  • 5 to 6 almonds in paste form can be mixed with milk and drink it daily to normalize the low blood pressure.
If these home remedies are not helpful for you, you should consult a doctor for abnormal blood pressure.


The above article gave you a brief introduction of abnormal blood pressure and its types, symptoms, physical ailments and their remedies. We hope that the information included in the article will help you in various ways. Thank You!

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